Consciousness Studies

In September 2012, I published the book The Origin of Consciousness: The Natural Selection of Choice-Making Systems. The book presents the Choice-making Theory of Consciousness, a new theory based entirely on natural evolutionary theory and history.

This work has been selected for presentation at The Science of Consciousness conference in Interlaken Switzerland, June 2019.

Following is the abstract submitted to the conference committee. An article version was published in the October 2018 issue of the online journal Conscious Conversations. And of course the full theory can be found in the book (43 pages) on

The Choice-making Theory of Consciousness
Abstract submission

Evolutionary theory teaches that all modern biological functions have precursor forms.  A growing scientific consensus holds that consciousness is a biological function and therefore a product of evolution. To understand human consciousness, we must first understand its precursor forms. What biological function, present throughout evolutionary history, could have become consciousness? One answer is “choice-making.” The first function of all life is acquisition of nutrients necessary for survival and reproduction. The earliest choices were about selective ingestion of contacted substances. Following the line of animal evolution, choices about movement enabled greater contact with nutrients. The animal capacity for directed movement, required a centralized function to mediate choice of direction. The modern self is descended from this function. Animal food acquisition strategies became increasingly complex. Predation increased choice-making complexity for both predators and prey. Animals began to cohere in social groups as early as 150 ma, requiring choices about social competition for food and mating. Sexual selection and choices associated with tool use and language may be largely responsible for the level of choice-making complexity in humans. All functions of the human mind-brain can be viewed as choice-making functions. Choice-making is the evolutionary “purpose” of the mind-brain. Human consciousness is hyper-complex choice-making.